PDB ID: 38KC
Amyloid precursor proteins (APP), present in the fatty membrane of neuronal cells, undergo a series of enzymatic cleavages to create smaller proteins known as β-Amyloid. Sometimes, β-Amyloid may be overproduced leading to an accumulation of this protein. The extra β-Amyloid sticks together and creates plaques in neuronal cells. These plaques are believed to block cell signaling (leading to cell death), cause brain tissue loss, and inhibit the proteasome degradation pathway. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, researchers believe that these consequences of β-Amyloid are linked to neurodegeneration and diseases such as Alzheimer’s.